We’ve covered quite a lot on the science, biology and even various therapeutics relating to the adaptive immune system, which involves lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells, but what about the innate immune system?

Historical Background

In 1891 a surgeon named William Cooley wrote the first case report of what happens when you inject people who have inoperable cancer with bacterial toxins (history buffs who want to read more should click the following open access link to download one of his historical papers).

We’ve heard about the promise of cancer immunotherapy and in particular checkpoint inhibitors, but not everyone responds. It’s typically around 25-30% in most cancers.

So how do we identify those patients that are likely to respond, and perhaps more importantly, how can we increase the percentage of patients that do respond?

Immune biomarkers are key to answering both those questions, and understanding the rationale for where we go beyond giving just one checkpoint inhibitor, i.e. monotherapy.

In Ep 2 you’ll hear interviews conducted at the recent American Association of Immunologists (AAI) annual meeting in New Orleans.